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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2583\margr4281\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2583\margrsxn4281\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx3072 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 ITS CAUSES{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-22 131}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb233\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw11\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 tthet toils in India/' But when Alexander egged \expndtw0 em on to match forward it was like putting the pro-\expndtw1 ^rbial last straw on the camel's back. During their \expndtw-2 :ogress towards the Hyphasis Alexander's troops had \expndtw-3 jard all sorts of alarming rumours that beyond it there ere extensive and uninviting deserts, impetuous and ifathomable rivers., and what was more disquieting, \expndtw-5 >werful and wealthy nations maintaining huge armies, artius represents Phegeus (Phegelis P),\super 1\nosupersub  identified with \expndtw-2 lagala,\super 2\nosupersub  as giving the following information to Alex-\expndtw8 ider : "The farther bank of the Ganges was inha-\expndtw2 ted by two nations, the Gangaridae, and the Prasii, \expndtw5 hose king Agrammes kept in the field for guarding \expndtw8 e approaches to his country 20,000 cavalry and \expndtw3 >o,ooo infantry besides 2,000 four-horsed chariots, \expndtw-3 id what was most formidable force of all, a troop of \expndtw4 sphants, which ran up to the number of 3,000".\super 3 \nosupersub\expndtw3 milarly, Plutarch says that "the kings of the Ganga-:ai and Praisiai were reported to be waiting for him \expndtw-6 ith an army of 80,000 horse and 200,000 foot, 8,000 \expndtw7 ar-chariots and 6,000 fighting elephants. Nor was \expndtw2 is an exaggeration, for not long afterwards Andro-\expndtw6 )ttos who had by that time mounted the throne, \expndtw-4 :esented Seleukos with 500 elephants and overran and \expndtw0 ibdued the whole of India with an army of 600,000 \expndtw6 en."\super 4\nosupersub  The substantial truth of these statements is \expndtw7 >rne out by indigenous sources also, which tell us \super\expndtw2 :\nosupersub  the enormous riches and power of the Nanda mo-\expndtw3 trch holding sway over the Gangaridai and Prasii \expndtw11 itions.\super 5\nosupersub  Arrian's deposition, too, is much to the \expndtw5 me effect, but he seems to refer to the country im-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li190\fi0\ri0\sb247\sa0\sl-199\slmult0\tx305 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw2 Curtius, IX, 2, \i Ibid.\sub 9\nosupersub  \i0 p. 221.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li190\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-199\slmult0\tx305 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex60\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\charscalex100\expndtw4 Cam. Hist, of India, \i0 Vol. I, p. 372.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li190\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-199\slmult0\tx305 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw4 Curtius, IX, 2, M'crindle's \i Invasion by Alexander\\ \i0 pp.  221-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li211\fi0\ri0\sb180\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 * Plutarch, LXII, \i Ibid., \i0 p. 310.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li211\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 5\nosupersub  See Raychaudhuri, \i Pol. Hist. Anc. Ind., \i0 4th ed, pp. 188-91.}\par }